Controlled Weight Loss Study

 Randomized, Controlled Weight Loss Study
With A Novel Dietary Supplement Containing Essential,
Positive-Charged and Satiety Amino Acids

(Power Amino Acids®)

George A. Scheele, M.D.
NovaLife, Inc.

Running Title:  Weight Control with Power Amino Acids®

 ABSTRACT

 

A new high-nutrient, low calorie food/drink technology, containing essential, positive-charged, and satiety amino acids (Power Amino Acids®) was studied for weight loss benefits in 25 volunteer subjects in a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical study over 3 months. Twenty four out of twenty five subjects lost weight, ranging from 3 to 17 pounds, with an average weight loss of 8.5 pounds over the 3 month period. All subjects who lost weight showed improvements in body mass index (BMI), reductions in body fat and percent body fat. Eleven subjects, who volunteered to extend the study up to both 6 and 12 months, showed additional weight loss, with an average weight loss of 17.6 pounds at 6 months and 33.4 pounds at 12 months. Percent body weight lost at 3, 6 and 12 months amounted to 4.2%, 8.4% and 16.1%. In contrast to numerous weight-loss products and dietary regimens that cause little or no sustained reductions in body weight, the subjects in this study, who followed a regimen of Power Amino Acids, showed significant, sustained, and persistent loss of body weight that was quasi-linear as a function of time on the supplemental amino acid regimen.

INTRODUCTION

A longstanding approach to weight loss, used by the health-care profession, has been to reduce caloric intake through dietary restrictions and increase caloric metabolism through increased exercise. Current government programs reflect similar though less stringent goals in the Childhood Obesity Program. Meal replacement strategies (1-4) have shown increased success in a variety of studies because greater controls are exerted over caloric intake. However, the continuing problem with all these strategies is while they work under close supervision, compliance rates drastically fall in the absence of external monitoring systems, leading to ultimate failure in poorly supervised programs.

Without strong external monitoring mechanisms, which appear to be cost-prohibitive, most subjects suffer from addictive taste disorders that lead to overeating behaviors and unwanted weight gains (5). Recent studies have shown that both refined sugars (sucrose and high fructose corn syrup) and fat are highly addictive food substrates (5-7).

This study takes a new and different approach to controlling body weight by combating addictive taste disorders. The study uses amino acids as metabolic precursors to curb appetite and correct diet-induced deficiencies in amino acids, positive-charged proteins and metabolic pathways (5-7). The choice of amino acids, which is critical in this approach, depends on a number of scientific considerations and is the subject of patent protection1. This new food/drink technology is formulated in a powder that contains vitamins, minerals, micronutrients, and both free and bound amino acids, which results in a sustained delivery of amino acids to the body over a period of 5 hours or more. Power Amino Acids suppress appetite, boost energy, build muscle and burn fat. These four mechanisms work synergistically to reset and balance metabolic pathways that store and burn fat. Hence the new technology is called Factor4 Health2.

This study presents the results of a weight loss study that was conducted on an initial cohort of 25 subjects over 3, 6, and 12 months in 2007 and further discusses the concepts that appear to be responsible for the impressive weight loss results observed in this study.

METHODS

The purpose of this study was to monitor body fat, lean body (muscle) mass, and total body weight during a 3 month, 6 month and 12 month study on 25 initial subjects who took the power amino acid supplement. The study was designed as an open label study where the subject’s response was compared to a historic response for each subject, determined in the period prior to the study.

Adult men and women between the ages of 35 and 65 were recruited through newspaper advertisements. Women who might become pregnant were excluded. Subjects were accepted if they were overweight, obese or morbidly obese (more than 100 pounds overweight).  Adults with a body mass index of 30 or more were considered obese.  Adults with a body mass index between 25 and 30 were considered overweight. The equation used to calculate body mass index is body weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Other than weight lifters, this equation works as an index of body weight status.

In order to qualify for the study each subject was required to sign a consent form indicating their willingness to participate as a research subject in an evaluation of weight loss, weight management and changes in body fat utilizing a dietary supplement. This form included discussions of (i) symptoms & side-effects, (ii) risks & benefits, (iii) follow up, (iv) confidentiality of records, and (v) compensation (free product).

Subjects were instructed to drink shakes made with the Power Amino Acid Supplement as follows:

  • Once in the morning upon arising and before breakfast.
  • Once at mid-day as a lunch beverage.
  • Once in the evening before dinner, during dinner or after dinner according to the preference of individual subjects.

Table 1 lists the nutritional facts for Factor4 Weight Control®. Table 2 lists all of the amino acids that are incorporated into protein according to their name, their three-letter code, their status as essential or nonessential, their charge and their supplemental status as power amino acids.

STUDY PERIOD

The initial study period was three months. However, a smaller number of volunteers chose to continue the study through 6 months and 12 months (n=11). Body weight and body composition measurements were taken at weekly intervals up to 6 months (Table 3) and again at 12 months.

BODY WEIGHT AND COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS

The study was monitored by a certified Personal Trainer with experience in monitoring weight loss studies. All subjects met with the trainer each week throughout the 6 month study and again at 12 months to record body weight and composition measurements. Body weight was measured with a gravimetric scale. Body composition measurements, including (i) body fat in pounds and % of body weight, (ii) lean body weight in pounds and % of body weight, and (iii) total Body water in liters and % of body weight, were measured using a Sony near infra-red laser to measure fat content in 12 locations. Near infra-red lasers are used by the USDA to measure fat ratios in commercial meat and measurements are considered accurate within +/- 1%. Circumference measurements were taken around the waist, thigh and upper arm. Body mass index was calculated according to the above equation. All measurements were recorded on an Excel Spreadsheet for further analysis including statistical analyses.

The Principle Investigator met with groups of subjects at monthly intervals to discuss additional effects of the power amino acid supplement on the following health parameters: (i) changes in distribution of body weight and energy levels, (ii) growth of hair and nails, (iii) effects on mood, stress, memory and sleep, (iv) effects on blood chemistries, (v) immune health including natural resistance to viruses, bacteria and fungi, (vi) sexual effects including desire, activity and function, (vii) gastrointestinal effects, including appetite, acid reflux and regularity of bowel function, and (viii) subjective feelings on functional age. As part of this exercise, subjects were asked to record their observations on a standardized questionnaire form.

After termination of the study at defined end points (3 mos., 6 mos. and 12 mos.) each subject’s file was reviewed and body weight and composition measurements were plotted as a function of time. Statistical analyses were applied to the accumulated data.

RESULTS

Forty subjects showed up to participate in body composition measurements as outlined in the study protocol. Subjects signed the information and consent forms and submitted to frontal photographs of the face and upper torso. Within the first 4 weeks two groups emerged. One group of 15 subjects showed erratic or no attendance at weekly weigh-ins. Because of poor performance these subjects were dropped from the study. Another group of 25 subjects showed regular attendance and were considered qualified for the initial 3 month study.

RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED POPULATION WITH 25 SUBJECTS

The 3 month study was therefore carried out on a randomized group of 25 subjects who demonstrated regular attendance and full cooperation in the study. Each of these 25 subjects had a history of chronic refractory overweight conditions for many years, most for more than 10 to 20 years. The majority of these subjects had tried several, if not many, fashionable diets and weight-loss medications with little success.  While they were successful in losing a few pounds with each diet, they were unable to sustain weight loss due to a variety of reasons:

  • Dietary regimens did not produce significant results.
  • Dietary regimens were incompatible with life-style choices (frequency of meals, difficulties in preparation of meals, harsh reductions in food intake, lack of pleasurable taste using nutritional supplements, powders and pills).
  • Dietary regimens that could not be sustained as pleasurable gastronomic experiences.
  • Most of these diets utilized a two-week induction period consisting of relative starvation routines.  While weight was lost during the induction period, the weight returned during the post-induction period.

Accordingly, this study meets the criteria of a “Historical Control Population” defined in the Code of Federal Regulations, CFR-21, by the Food and Drug Administration.

RESULTS OF THE 3-MONTH STUDY

The results are tabulated in Table 3. Eighteen of the subjects lost between 3 and 10 pounds. Six of the subjects lost between 11 and 20 pounds. One subject, who continued to eat in fast food restaurants, gained 3 pounds. Therefore twenty four out of twenty five (24/25) subjects lost weight during the 3 month study demonstrating that 96% of subjects achieved weight loss during the 3 month power amino acid Study. Each of these subjects showed increases in lean body weight and decreases in body fat, calculated as a percent of body weight and absolute values.

Because of the success of the 3 month study, it was decided to determine whether or not a subgroup of subjects could continue to lose weight by following the power amino acid regimen for up to 6 and 12 months. Eleven (11) subjects signed up to continue the weight loss regimen over an extended period of time.

RESULTS OF THE 6-MONTH EXTENSION STUDY

Each of the 11 subjects that participated in the six month study showed continued weight loss with time (Table 3) and body composition measurements further indicated that improvements in fat pound loss and dimensions of waists, hips and thighs could continue during the second 3 month period.

At the end of the 6 month study weight loss performance fell into three groups:

  • Weight loss between 3 and 10 pounds (modest weight loss) – Two subjects lost “modest” amounts of weight.
  • Weight loss between 11 and 20 pounds (moderate weight loss) – Six subjects lost “moderate” amounts of weight.
  • Weight loss between 21 and 30 pounds (large-scale weight loss) – Three subjects lost “large-scale” amounts of weight, between 20 and 29 pounds.

Subjects that lost moderate and large-scale amounts of weight showed steady, cumulative and persistent weight loss. Subjects that lost modest amounts of weight showed unpredictable pauses in weight loss and unpredictable fluctuations in weight. Detailed body weight measurements for this group are shown in Table 3 and Figure 1.

RESULTS OF THE 12 MONTH EXTENSION STUDY

In order to be certain that weight loss subjects could continue to normalize their weight and avoid rebound to overweight conditions, the study for the group of eleven subjects was extended through 12 months. Each of the subjects continued to lose additional weight approaching their weight loss goals. Final body weight measurements are shown in Table 3.

FINAL RESULTS

Based on weekly measurements of body weight and body composition (percent body fat, fat pounds, lean body mass, total body water and body mass index) in a group of 25 overweight adults (9 males and 16 females), the following positive effects were observed:

  • The results of the three (3) month study showed that 96% of subjects (24 out of 25 subjects) who followed the power amino acid regimen over that period of time lost weight (Table 3).
  • The results of the six (6) month extension study on 11 subjects indicated that these subjects continued to lose additional weight during the second 3 month period (Table 3 and Figure 1).
  • The results of the twelve (12) month extension study on 11 subjects indicated that these subjects continued to lose additional weight during this period of time (Table 3).
  • All subjects that lost weight showed reduced body mass indices (BMI), reduced body fat and reduced percentage of body fat.

Average weight loss expressed as a percentage of initial body weight was 4.2% for the three month study, 8.4% for the 6 month study and 16.1% for the 12 month study.

ANALYSIS OF LOWER PERFORMANCE GROUPS

We examined closely the subjects who lost 9 pounds or less and the one subject who gained 3 pounds in the initial 3 month period. An analysis of this low performance group revealed the following insights. A common explanation was a lack of discipline and ability to “buy-into” the program. All subjects who continued to eat an abundance of fast foods, Mexican foods and Chinese foods did poorly. Several subjects had experienced severe stress related to their jobs or significant illnesses that required repeated medical procedures. Two subjects suffered from frequent travel schedules, which added stress and precluded taking the power amino acid regimen during travels.

DISCUSSION

Each of the 25 subjects studied in the Power Amino Acid supplement study were diagnosed as suffering from chronic overweight conditions refractory to known weight loss medications and diets. The majority of subjects had experience with numerous weight loss products and dietary regimens, without sustained success. One subject had documented more than 25 dietary regimens and 6 weight-loss medications that she had tried over a 20 year period of time, again without success. In contrast to numerous weight loss products and dietary regimens that caused little or no sustained reductions in body weight, the subjects in this study showed significant, sustained and persistent loss of weight with little change in dietary habits and little or no changes in exercise activity.

The longevity of the Amino Acid Weight Loss study is indicative of the benefits of using Power Amino Acids on a background of other supplemental ingredients (vitamins, minerals, micronutrients, fiber, FOS, enzymes), formulated to (i) suppress appetite, (ii) burn calories, and (iii) correct nutritional imbalances. This supplement proved highly useful in reducing consumption of calorie-rich foods that resulted in significant loss of unwanted body weight.

Of considerable note, these results were obtained without intense exercise routines or stringent dietary restrictions.  However, with time, as subjects lost weight and gained confidence, they were attracted to better eating habits and showed a tendency to increase their exercise routines.

Average weight loss expressed as a percentage of initial body weight was 4.2% for the three month study, 8.4% for the 6 month study and 16.1% for the 12 month study. Among prescription weight-loss drugs a 5% reduction in body weight is required for FDA approval.

Social networks appeared to play an important role in weight-loss success or failure. For example subjects who socialized together showed lower weight-loss performance. Subjects who were married and were both were committed to the program did well with the highest performance. In contrast, Subjects who were married and showed difficulty in following the program generally did poorly.

Table 4 compares the weight loss success with the Power Amino Acid supplement compared to four popular diets that have been available for years. While weight loss with the Atkins, national guidelines, Dean Ornish and the Zone diets are modest, amounting to 3.5 to 10 pounds lost over 12 months, a regimen of Power Amino Acids led to an average weight loss of 17.6 and 33.4 pounds in 6 and 12 months, respectively.

Power Amino Acids also appear to be significantly more potent than Alli® or Xenical®, the OTC and prescription forms of Orlistat, which have been estimated and demonstrated to account for 3 pounds and 6 pounds of weight loss, respectively, over 12 months (8).

We believe that the increase in weight loss observed with the amino acid supplement is due to four factors, including the beneficial effects of Power Amino Acids, which:

  • Suppress appetite, satisfying food cravings, hunger pangs, famished states and eating binges
  • Burn fat by balancing metabolic pathways that store and metabolize fat.
  • Boost energy, with increases in activity, energy, stamina, endurance and performance
  • Build muscle, which increases fat metabolism

In short Power Amino Acids correct deficiencies in amino acids, proteins, metabolic pathways and body health. We have written extensively about the deficiencies that occur as amino acids move along the food chain up to larger animals and human beings (5-6).

The inclusion of both free amino acids (proprietary blend) and protein-bound amino acids (whey and soy protein) delivers a double wave of essential and positive-charged amino acids to the body over a sustained period of time, which serves to extend the appetite suppression associated with the supplemental regimen. Table 5 assembles much of the information known about the timeline of absorption of free amino acids compared to those contained in commercial sources of protein, including Whey, Soy and Casein. The sustained delivery of essential amino acids may be inferred from the profiles described for absorption times.

While high-protein foods or protein supplements may satisfy the requirement for essential amino acids, the accelerated availability of power amino acids short-circuits the food chain the fastest as shown in Table 5.  This is because free amino acids begin to be absorbed into the bloodstream within minutes. Protein supplements require digestion before their amino acids may be absorbed. High-protein foods require additional periods of time for digestion and absorption. In conclusion, under conditions of amino acid and protein deficiency, which are the primary determinants of hunger, power amino acids provide the quickest path to relief, followed by Whey protein, Casein protein and high-protein foods, in that order.

The ability to separate proteins in high resolution using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis according to size and charge has been invaluable in studying the effects of amino acid deficiency on protein synthesis (9-14). In the presence of deficiencies in essential amino acids, higher animals initially lose the ability to synthesize positive-charged proteins even when the synthesis of negative-charged proteins remain intact. For example, when rats were fed a protein-deficient diet for 10 to 12 days, their ability to synthesize positive-charged proteins throughout the body decreased by 90 to 95% (see schematic diagrams in Figure 2, and references 12 and 14). This imbalance between positive-charged and negative-charged proteins (see Table 6) results in selective protein deficiency syndrome, a condition which leads to a profound imbalance in metabolic pathways and increased storage of fat. In its simplest context, it appears that negative-charged proteins are associated with fat storage and positive-charged proteins are associated with fat metabolism.

Once the deficiencies in amino acids and positive-charged proteins are corrected with power amino acids, balance appears to be restored in metabolic pathways that control fat storage and metabolism. By restoring balance between fat storage and fat metabolism the body regains the ability to normalize body weight.

In addition to normalizing metabolic pathways by restoring positive-charged enzymes, power amino acids also serve as potent suppressors of appetite (5-7). Among the nine essential amino acids, L-Leucine, DL-Phenylalanine and L-Tryptophan (5-hydroxy-Tryptophan) have been shown to be potent suppressors of appetite (15-17).

Power amino acids, containing essential, branched and positive-charged amino acids, also build muscle and boost energy. Increased energy enhances the desire for exercise and muscle is the main organ in the body that burns fatty acids.

The primary benefits of Power Amino Acids serve to work together in a synergistic fashion to normalize body weight through four metabolic benefits, including the ability of these amino acids to suppress appetite, boost energy, build muscle and burn fat. Because of these powerful synergistic effects, we refer to essential and positive-charge amino acids as Power Amino Acids.

Given the safety profile of all-natural Power Amino Acids, they appear to be the treatment of choice in normalizing body weight as well as metabolic health (5-7). It also appears that Power Amino Acids normalize body weight without intense exercise routines or stringent dietary protocols. Once appetite is suppressed, addictive taste disorders are curbed and once fat metabolism is stimulated, body fat stores are reduced.

Body weight is only one of the chronic degenerative diseases that are associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, accelerated aging and premature death. The Metabolic Syndrome is also associated with other metabolic risk factors such as high levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and sugar and other metabolic diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers (breast, prostate, colon and endometrial), osteoarthritis, and gallbladder & liver disease.

On the basis of limited spot checks on serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and fasting sugar, it appears that Power Amino Acids also serve to mitigate these metabolic risk factors. By reestablishing the balance in metabolic pathways, Power Amino Acids may also serve to curb the metabolic diseases that accelerate aging and reduce national productivity.

FOOTNOTES

1. The proprietary blend of essential, branched chain and positive-charged amino acids, referred to as Power Amino Acids, is marked as Factor4 Weight Control®. The formulation and application utilities are patent pending.

2. Power Amino Acids®, Factor4 Weight Control®, and Factor4 Health™ are registered marks and trademarks owned by NovaLife, Inc.

DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

George A. Scheele, M.D., is the founder of NovaLife, Inc., which markets and sells Factor4 Weight Control, containing a proprietary blend of Power Amino Acids® together with vitamins, minerals, micronutrients and protein.

REFERENCES

 

  1. Heber, D, Ashley JM, Wang, HJ, Elashoff, RM. Clinical Evaluation of a minimal intervention meal replacement regimen for weight reduction. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Dec; 13(6): 608-14
  2. McCarron DA, Oparil S, Chair A, Haynes RB, Kris-Etherton P, Stern JS, Resnick LM, Clark S, Morris CD, Hatton DC, Metz JA, McMahon M, Holcomb S, Snyder GW, Pi-Sunyer FX. Nutritional Management of cardiovascular risk factors. A randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 1997 Jan 27; 157(2):169-77.
  3. Fletchner-Mors M, Ditschuneit HH, Johnson TD, Suchard MA, Adler G. Metabolic and weight loss effects of long-term dietary intervention in obese patients: four-year results. Obesity Res. 2000 Aug; 8(5): 399-402.
  4. Rothacker DQ. Five year self management of weight using meal replacements: Comparison with matched controls in rural Wisconsin, Nutrition 2000; 16:344-348.
  5. Scheele G. The Obesity Cure: Weight Control, Metabolic Health and Revitalized Youth with Power Amino Acids. Published in e-book format by Bookmasters, 2011.
  6. Scheele GA. Power Amino Acids: The Factor4 Advantage in Weight-Loss Health. 2009. E-book available on www.factor4health.com.
  7. Scheele G. Healthful Diets: A cure for obesity and preventable chronic disease. 2009. National Association Praecis Syndicate (NAPS) release to newspaper syndicates.
  8. Hensrud, D. (2009). Alli weight loss pill: Does it work? http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alli/wt00030
  9. Scheele, G. (1975) Two dimensional gel analysis of soluble proteins – Characterization of guinea pig exocrine pancreatic proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 250: 5375-85.
  10. Scheele, G. (1982) Two dimensional electrophoresis in basic and clinical research as exemplified by studies on the exocrine pancreas, Clin. Chem., 28: 1056-61.
  11. Kern, H., Rausch, U. and Scheele, G. (1986) Pancreatic adaptation to nutritional substrates in the diet is regulated by specific hormones, In Adaptation in the Small Instestine and Pancreas (H. Dowling, U. Folsch and E.O. Riecken, eds.) Gut, 28: 89-94.
  12. Schick, J., Verspohl, R., Kern, H. and Scheele, G. (1984) Two distinct genetic patterns of response in the exocrine pancreas to inverse changes in protein and carbohydrate in the diet, Am. J. Physiol. 248: G611-616.
  13. Scheele, G. and Kern H.F. (1989) Selective regulation of gene expression in the exocrine pancreas. Handbook Physiol., Section 6, The Gastrointestinal System, Vol. III, salivary, gastric, pancreatic and hepatobiliary secretion (J. Forte, ed.) Oxford University Press, NY, pp 499-513.
  14. Scheele, G. (1993) Regulation of pancreatic gene expression in response to hormones and nutritional substrates, In The Pancreas, Biology, Pathobiology and Diseases (V.L. Go, J.D. Gardiner, H.A. Reber, E. Lebenthal, E.P. DiMagno, G.A. Scheele, eds.) Raven Press, New York, NY pp 103-120.
  15. Cota D, Proulx K, Blake Smith KA, Kozma SC, Thomas G, Woods SC, Seeley RJ. Hypothalamic mTOR Signaling Regulates Food Intake. 2006. Science, 312: 927-930.
  16. Ross, Julia. The Diet Cure. Penguin Books. 1999.
  17. Heisler LK, Jobst EE, Sutton GM, Zhou L, Borok E, Thornton-Jones Z, Liu HY, Zigman JM, Balthasar N, Kishi T, Lee CE, Aschkenasi CJ, Zhang C-Y, Yu J, Boss O, Mountjoy KG, Clifton PG, Lowell BB, Friedman JM, Horvath T, Butler AA, Elmquist JK, Cowley MA. Serotonin Reciprocally Regulates Melanocortin Neurons to Modulate Food Intake. 2006. Neuron. 51: 239-249.

Table 1: Nutritional Facts for Power Amino Acid Supplement

Nutrition Facts, Power Amino Acid Supplement

 

Amount Per Serving

% Daily Value*

Calories

71

 
Calories from Fat

15

 
Total Fat**

1.6 g

2.1%

Cholesterol

12 mg

4%

Total Carbs

<1.2 g

1%

Fiber

1.5 g

6%

Sugars

0.3 g

 
Protein

11.5 g

23%

Vitamin A (Palmitate)

3000 IU

60%

Vitamin C (Ascorbitol Palmitate)

30 mg

50%

Vitamin E (dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate)

10 IU

33.3%

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine mononitrate)

1 mg

66.6%

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin 5 phosphate)

1.13 mg

66.6%

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCI)

1.3 mg

66.6%

Niacin

20 mg

100%

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine)

4 mcg

66.6%

Lutein

1 mg

 
Calcium (Dicalcium malate™, protein)

150 mg

15%

Magnesium (Amino acid chelate™)

100 mg

25.25%

Phosphorus

63 mg

15.7%

Zinc (Amino acid chelate™)

4 mg

26.6%

Potassium

65 mg

65.6%

Sodium

8.8 mg

 
Gamma-linolenic acid

15 mg

 
Bromelain

25 mg

 
Papain

25 mg

 
Manganese (Chelate)

1 mg

50%

Selenium (Selenomethionine)

35 mcg

50%

Chromium (Chelate)

60 mcg

50%

Boron (Citrate)

100 mcg

 
Molybdenum (Chelate)

37.5 mcg

50%

Iodine (Kelp)

37.5 mcg

50%

Biotin

150 mcg

50%

Folic Acid

400 mcg

100%

 

Power Amino Acid Complex: L-Lysine, L-Arginine, L-Isoleucine, L-Leucine, L-Threonine, L-Valine, dl-Phenylalanine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan
Factor4 Protein Complex: Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Protein Concentrate, Soy Protein Isolate
Other Ingredients: Guar gum, Lecithin, natural and artificial flavors, natural and artificial colors, fructo-oligosaccharide, natural and artificial sweetners and Stevia
* Percent Daily Values Based on a 2000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your caloric needs.
** 1.4g Unsaturated fat; 0.2g Saturated Fat

 

 

Table 2: Amino Acid Nomenclature

Amino Acid

3-letter code

Dietary Status

Charge

Supplement Status

L-Lysine

Lys

Essential

Positive

Power

L-Arginine

Arg

Nonessential1

Positive

Power

L-Histidine

His

Essential

Positive

Power

L-Isoleucine

Ile

Essential

 

Power

L-Leucine

Leu

Essential

 

Power

L-Methionine

Met

Essential

 

Power

L-Phenylalanine

Phe

Essential

 

Power

L-Tryptophan

Trp

Essential

 

Power

L-Valine

Val

Essential

 

Power

L-Threonine

Thr

Essential

 

Power

L-Alanine

Ala

Nonessential

   
L-Glycine

Gly

Nonessential1

   
L-Aspartic acid

Asp

Nonessential

Negative

 
L-Glutamic acid

Glu

Nonessential

Negative

 
L-Proline

Pro

Nonessential1

   
L-Serine

Ser

Nonessential

   
L-Glutamine

Gln

Nonessential1

   
L-Asparagine

Asn

Nonessential

   
L-Cysteine

Cys

Nonessential1

   
L-Tyrosine

Tyr

Nonessential1

   

1 Arginine as well as 5 other amino acids, is an essential amino acid in early childhood and possibly during growth spurts and illnesses. Principles of Biochemistry. A. Lehninger, 1982. Worth Publishers, New York, NY.

Table 3: Weight Loss Observed at 3, 6 & 12 Months With Power Amino Acid Supplement

ID

Weight Loss (pounds)

Gender

3 Months

6 Months

12 Months

Subject 1

Male

17

26

31

Subject 2

Female

9

16

35

Subject 3

Male

5

8

20

Subject 4

Male

10

   
Subject 5

Male

7

   
Subject 6

Female

7

   
Subject 7

Male

10

17

34

Subject 8

Female

11

   
Subject 9

Male

8

   
Subject 10

Female

12

20

41

Subject 11

Female

3

   
Subject 12

Female

10

14

30

Subject 13

Female

13

23

36

Subject 14

Male

10

21

43

Subject 15

Female

11

27

49

Subject 16

Male

+3

   
Subject 17

Female

9

   
Subject 18

Female

3

   
Subject 19

Male

7

   
Subject 20

Female

8

   
Subject 21

Male

5

   
Subject 22

Female

7

   
Subject 23

Female

6

8

21

Subject 24

Female

7

   
Subject 25

Male

10

14

29

Average Weight Loss

8.5

17.6

33.4

Average weight loss as % of body weight

4.2%

8.4%

16.1%

 

Table 4: Comparison of Weight Loss Performance Between the Power Amino Acid Supplement and four Popular Diets

DIET PLAN

WEIGHT LOSS

Power Amino Acid Supp.12 month study

33 lbs

Power Amino Acid Supp.6 month study

18 lbs

Atkins12 month study1

10 lbs

National Guidelines12 month study1

6 lbs

Dean Ornish12 month study1

5 lbs

Zone12 month study1

3.5 lbs

1The weight loss results from the Atkins, National Guidelines, Dean Ornish and Zone diets, conducted on 612 subjects divided into four equal groups by unbiased observers, was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in March of 2007.  The Power Amino Acid results are reported in this paper.

 

Table 5: Estimated Absorption Times for Power Amino Acids Compared to Amino acids Contained in Proteins and High-Protein Foods

Source of essential amino acids Time of absorption into the bloodstream
Power Amino Acids® 10-60 minutes
Whey protein 4 hours1
Soy protein 6 hours1
Casein protein 8 hours1
High-protein foods Up to 12 to 18 hours

1. Data obtained from Protient Technologies

Table 6: Changes in Fractional Protein Synthesis Rates in Rat Pancreatic Enzymes after a 12-day administration of a protein deficient diet relative to the Control Diet with 22% Protein

Protein

(Pancreatic Enzymes)

IEP1

0% Protein Diet2

Trypsinogen 1

4.3

1.86

Trypsinogen 2

4.4

2.81

Procarboxypeptidases A+B

4.3-4.6

1.28

Chymotrypsinogen 1

4.8

1.41

Proelastase 1

4.9

2.20

Lipase

6.8

0.23

Trypsinogen 4

8.0

0.36

Amylase 1

8.6

0.41

Amylase 2

8.9

0.19

Proelastase 2

9.1

0.36

Chymotrypsinogen 2

9.2

0.57

Ribonuclease

9.3

0.47

1IEP, Isoelectric point or pI

2Fractional rates of synthesis (FRS) of indicated proteins after 10 days on the indicated diet divided by the corresponding FRS after a control diet of 22% protein. Adapted from References 11 and 13 with permission.

FIGURE 1: Weight Loss Graphs in the 6 Month Study

 

FIGURE 2: Schematic Diagram of Changes in Protein Synthesis

After 12 Days on a Protein Deficient Diet

 

A: Protein Health

Normal Protein Pattern

 
  B: Selective Protein DeficiencyPositive Charged Proteins Reduced by ~90%  
  C: Correction with the Power Amino Acid SupplementReturn to the Normal Protein Pattern  

 

LEGEND:

The yellow and red triangles shown at the top of the gels show the gradients of positive (red) and negative (yellow) charges that reside in the proteins. Thus, proteins at the far right in the 2D gel contain more positive-charged amino acids than negative-charged amino acids. In contrast, proteins at the far left in the 2D gel contain more negative-charged amino acids than positive charged amino acids.

Figure 1A shows a 2D gel demonstrating 10 proteins (round black spots) separated according to charge (horizontal axis) and size (vertical axis). Each protein has a distinct specific function that is necessary to ensure the health of cells, organs and tissues. Because the functions of proteins are complementary, the entire set of proteins are required to ensure “protein health” in a given organ or tissue. The pattern of protein expression shown in Figure 1A represents a “healthy tissue.”

Under conditions of selective protein deficiency or partial protein deficient states, positive-charged proteins initially suffer more than negative-charged proteins as seen in Figure 1B. The synthesis of negative-charged proteins continue but the synthesis of positive-charged proteins is greatly diminished to levels that are more than 90% diminished from levels observed in health within 12 days on a 0% protein diet. Thus positive-charged proteins show up at levels that are less than 10% of the levels that may be considered healthy. These changes in protein expression result in serious impairments in cellular function. In fact the impairments in protein expression may result in serious disease states, including overweight disorders, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and Type II diabetes, characterized by numerous risk factors and symptoms of premature aging.

Power amino acids provide the critical nutritional elements that correct the selective protein deficiency observed in Figure 1B. When corrected by power amino acids the pattern of protein expression returns to that observed in health seen in Figure 1C (compare Figure 1C to 1A).


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