2009: “Selective” Protein Deficiency and Metabolic Health
George A. Scheele, M.D.
QUESTION 1: DOES THE ADVANCED WORLD SUFFER FROM PROTEIN DEFICIENCY?
- Currently, the medical profession and the nutrition industry do not believe that people in advanced societies with an abundance of available food suffer from protein deficiency.
- Dr. Scheele’s 30 years of experimental study on pancreatic digestive enzymes in guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, dogs and humans indicate that higher animals, including man, may suffer from “Selective Protein Deficiency” where positive-charged proteins are the first to disappear in the human proteome (1-3).
- With his invention of 2D gel electrophoresis (1) Dr. Scheele’s laboratory monitored protein synthesis related to the entire proteome in nutritional studies and observed the progressive disappearance in the synthesis of positive-charged proteins when the diet containing adequate calories was reduced in protein (2). Previous nutritional studies followed total protein levels in the bloodstream, which were insufficient to determine changes in the synthesis of individual proteins in specific organs.
- The observation of selective protein deficiencies led Dr. Scheele to propose the “Charge Theory of Protein Expression.”
- “The Charge Theory of Protein Expression” resulting in “Selective Protein Deficiency Syndrome” will dramatically change the way we think about dietary health and provide strategies for improving health care to combat metabolic disease in the United States and around the world (3).
QUESTION 2: WHAT IS SELECTIVE PROTEIN DEFICIENCY SYNDROME?
- Selective protein deficiency syndrome is the earliest form of protein deficiency, when deficiencies occur in positive-charged proteins but not negative-charged proteins (4).
- Under conditions of protein deficiency the ability of laboratory animals to synthesize positive-charged proteins decreased by 90 to 95% within 10 to 12 days.
QUESTION 3: WHAT DOES SELECTIVE PROTEIN DEFICIENCY SYNDROME SAY ABOUT THE FOOD CHAIN?
- The early loss of positive-charged proteins indicate that the food chain is deficient in moving positive-charged amino acids (Lysine and Arginine) up to higher vertebrates, including rodents, mammals and humans (4).
QUESTION 4: WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE FOOD CHAIN?
Dr. Scheele’s research provides the first clear answer to this question:
- The primary function of the food chain is to move essential and positive-charged amino acids up to higher animals that depend on the food chain for optimal health.
- At the bottom of the food chain are bacteria, yeast, and plants that make all 20 amino acids that are required for protein synthesis.
- Higher animals can only make 11 of these amino acids, which are referred to as “nonessential” because, since they are produced by higher animals, it is not essential that they be obtained in the diet. They cannot make the other 9 amino acids, which are referred to as “essential” because, since they cannot be produced by higher animals, it is essential that they be obtained in the diet.
- From these data it may be concluded that the food chain is deficient in essential and positive-charged amino acids. The resulting “food chain gap” is further enhanced by poor dietary health and aging.
QUESTION 5: WHY DO HIGHER ANIMALS (VERTEBRATES, MAMMALS & HUMANS) NOT MAKE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS?
- As a result of his Charge Theory of Protein Expression Dr. Scheele has postulated that essential amino acids represent the signal to the appetite center (Arcuate Nucleus) that the organism is well fed (4). This postulate has been supported by satiety studies on the Arcuate Nucleus, where:
- Essential amino acids, particularly the branched chain (Leucine, Ileucine and Valine) have been shown to signal satiety.
- L and D forms of Phenylalanine have been shown to result in satiety.
- Tryptophan and 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan have been shown to exert potent satiety effects.
QUESTION 6: HOW CAN ONE CORRECT THE FOOD CHAIN GAP?
- Using essential and positive-charged amino acids (Power Amino Acids®), it is possible to efficiently close the food chain gap and correct for the deficiencies in positive-charged amino acids, proteins and enzymes that drive metabolic pathways (5).
QUESTION 7: WHY DO COMMERCIAL PROTEINS NOT CORRECT THE FOOD CHAIN GAP?
- Unfortunately all commercial proteins (Whey, Casein, Soy, Egg White etc.) are negative-charged proteins, which have an abundance of negative-charged amino acids and a paucity of positive-charged amino acids. As such they are good for building muscle but less optimal for restoring metabolic health (4).
- The great majority of fish, poultry and meat products, representing muscle tissue, appear to be enriched in negative-charged proteins and deficient in positive-charged proteins.
QUESTION 8: WHAT IS THE COMPOSITION OF POWER AMINO ACIDS®?
- Power Amino acids are comprised of three groups of amino acids:
- Essential amino acids: Lysine, Histidine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine, Methionine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, and Tryptophan;
- Positive-charged amino acids: Lysine, Arginine and Histidine
- Satiety amino acids: DL-Phenylalanine, Tryptophan and 5-hydroxy-Tryptophan
QUESTION 9: WHAT BENEFITS HAVE BEEN SEEN IN SUPPLEMENTING THE DIET WITH POWER AMINO ACIDS?
- Numerous benefits have been observed with Power Amino Acids®, which may be organized into four areas of improved health (4):
- Healthy Lifestyles with increased satiety, improved diet, exercise, sleep, attitude, and less dependency on sugar, caffeine and alcohol.
- Weight Control with lower body weight, improved body definition, and increased pep, energy, activity, stamina, endurance and performance.
- Metabolic Health with lower levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, sugar and less metabolic disease, including overweight disorders, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and gallbladder & liver disease.
- Anti-Aging Health with increased longevity and quality of life evidenced by reduced chronic degenerative disease and enhanced feelings of comfort, satisfaction, and well-being.
QUESTION 10: WHAT FOODS MOST CLOSELY APPROXIMATE FACTOR4 WITH POWER AMINO ACIDS®?
- Foods that most closely approximate Factor4 with Power Amino Acids® are fermented foods, including yogurt, sauerkraut, sour dough bread and other fermented foods in foreign cultures.
- In his book, The Obesity Cure (4), Dr. Scheele has proposed that fermented foods are responsible for the increased health, vitality and longevity of aging individuals in celebrity food cultures found in remote parts of the world.
- Fermented foods are enriched in positive-charged amino acids.
- Scheele, G. (1975) Two dimensional gel analysis of soluble proteins – Characterization of guinea pig exocrine pancreatic proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 250: 5375-85.
- Schick, J., Verspohl, R., Kern, H. and Scheele, G. (1984) Two distinct genetic patterns of response in the exocrine pancreas to inverse changes in protein and carbohydrate in the diet, Am. J. Physiol. 248: G611-616.
- Scheele, G. (1993) Regulation of pancreatic gene expression in response to hormones and nutritional substrates, In The Pancreas, Biology, Pathobiology and Diseases (V.L. Go, J.D. Gardiner, H.A. Reber, E. Lebenthal, E.P. DiMagno, G.A. Scheele, eds.) Raven Press, New York, NY pp 103-120.
- Scheele, G. (2011) The Obesity Cure. 2011. Link: www.atlasbooks.com/theobesitycure/
- High Protein Supplement: U.S. Patent No. 7,982,066 B2 issued on July 19, 2011.
George A. Scheele, M.D.
Dr. Scheele is a world-renowned physician, inventor, author and two-time Nobel Associate, who has pioneered in understanding the critical role of amino acids in regulating metabolic health and body weight. He recently introduced Factor4 Weight Control® with essential ingredients to treat the four nutritional traps that lead to overweight disorders and obesity.
As a graduate of Princeton University and Johns Hopkins Medical School he served as Professors of Medicine on the faculties of The Rockefeller University, Yale University School of Medicine and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Scheele invented new concepts and techniques which “cracked the code” in understanding how Power Amino Acids® correct the deficiencies in amino acids, positive-charged proteins, and metabolic pathways that normalize body weight and restore metabolic health.
A pioneer in the development of the fields of Cell Biology and Molecular Biology and their impact on understanding chronic human diseases, he participated in work that won two Nobel Prizes in Medicine awarded in 1974 and 1999.
As a leader in nutritional science and medical research with 40 years of innovative scientific research and 10 years of breathtaking achievements in the fields of obesity and metabolic disease, Dr. Scheele’s passion has always been to “Make the World a Better Place”. After moving to La Jolla in 1998, he has utilized his vast experience to develop superior health-care products for individuals living in today’s fast-paced world.
Dr. Scheele is currently the Founder, President, and CEO of NovaLife, Inc. a San-Diego based biotech company that has pioneered in the development of innovative health-care products for people who suffer from obesity and metabolic diseases, including diabetes, lipid disorders, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disorders, and aging.
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